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It was also hypothesized that self-compassion would be inversely correlated with BPD symptomatology.
Environment center home Invalidating
We further predicted that self-compassion would moderate the relationship between an invalidating childhood environment and BPD symptomatology. Specifically, the relationship between an invalidating childhood environment and BPD symptomatology was expected to be weaker among those with higher levels of self-compassion, and vice versa among those with lower levels of self-compassion. In this study, we adopted a dimensional perspective of BPD symptoms and recruited on a nonclinical sample of college students, as young adulthood represents a developmental period whereby the symptoms of BPD tend to begin to emerge [ 35 ].
Following Reeves et al. There were no inclusion and exclusion criteria. With regards to ethnicity, Participants expressing interest in the study were invited to a research laboratory and completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, which were all administered in English see measures section. Participants were given course credit points for their participation. The ICES is a two-part self-report measure. For the first part of the ICES, participants were asked to retrospectively provide both paternal and maternal ratings on 14 items using a 5-point Likert scale. A composite score was calculated for each parent, with scores ranging from 14 to The means of the total scores from the paternal and maternal subscales were then calculated so as to obtain a combined parental invalidation score.
A higher score would indicate higher perceived parental invalidation. The second part of the ICES comprises four descriptions depicting the three invalidating family environment types, namely typical, perfect and chaotic, as well as one validating family environment type, as outlined by Linehan [ 6 ]. For the purpose of this study, only the first part of the ICES was used. The ICES has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, with good internal consistencies of. The SCS measures the positive and negative aspects of the three dimensions of self-compassion: Participants were asked to rate 26 items on a 5-point Likert scale.
Item scores were reversed as appropriate, and then averaged to create an overall self-compassion score. The PAI-BOR is commonly used as a screening tool that measures four components of BPD symptomatology, namely 1 affective instability, 2 identity problems, 3 negative relationships, and 4 self-harm. For the current study, only the total scores, ranging from 0 to 72, were calculated for use in the analyses. Higher scores, which denote greater severity of BPD symptomatology, have been shown to distinguish BPD individuals from those with other diagnoses such as mood disorders, anxiety, substance abuse disorders, and antisocial personality disorder [ 39 ]. Following Reeves and colleagues [ 13 ], we adopted a dimensional perspective of BPD symptoms and recruited a nonclinical sample of college students, as late adolescence and young adulthood represents a developmental period whereby the symptoms of BPD tend to peak [ 45 ].
Based on previous research, it was hypothesized that maternal invalidation would be more strongly and positively correlated with BPD symptoms, as compared to paternal invalidation. We further hypothesized that the association between invalidation and BPD symptoms would be moderated by the interaction between self-reported degree of conformity to norms and self-construal. Specifically, we predicted that the association between invalidation and BPD symptoms would be stronger at high levels of conformity versus low levels of conformity among individuals with an interdependent self-construal.
It was an exploratory question the extent to which invalidation would be associated with BPD symptoms, and whether the association would be moderated by conformity, among individuals with an independent self-construal. There were no exclusion criteria. The majority of participants identified as Chinese Most participants identified as never married Upon providing informed consent, participants completed a battery of questionnaires administered through an online platform Qualtrics in hour-long group sessions. The questionnaires were all administered in English. At the end of the sessions, participants were debriefed about the aims of the study and given course credits for their participation.
Measures Demographic data The demographic information collected from participants included their gender, age, ethnicity, current relationship status, and employment status. Examples of items include: Higher scores indicate greater BPD symptomatology. The scale has demonstrated excellent psychometric properties, with a high internal consistency in nonclinical samples [ 47 ]. Experiences of invalidation The Invalidating Childhood Experiences Scale ICES is a item scale designed to measure the extent of invalidation experienced by an individual up to the age of 18 [ 48 ]. The items assess invalidating behaviors exhibited by the mother, as well as the father.
Higher scores indicate greater perceived invalidation from the parent in question. The measure consists of 2 subscales assessing independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal respectively. An overall score of independent self-construal was derived by subtracting scores from the interdependence self-construal subscale from scores from the independent self-construal subscale. A positive score reflects a primarily independent self-construal, whereas a negative overall score reflects a primarily interdependent self-construal. Conformity The Asian Values Scale-Revised AVS-R is a item scale developed to assess Asian values, conceptualized to encompass conformity to norms conformityfamily recognition through achievement, emotional self-control, collectivism, humility and filial piety [ 3849 ].
Example questions include: Higher scores indicate greater endorsement of Asian values. We administered this measure to assess the construct of conformity, given the lack of other established measures that assess this construct at the time of the study. As there are no pre-established, built-in subscales and factor structures for AVS-R, we conducted a principal components analysis to derive items that assess conformity specifically see below for results. Data were cleaned and checked for outliers prior to analyses. There were no missing data. We first ran a principal components factor analysis with a varimax rotation on AVS-R to derive items that assess the conformity factor.
Items with a minimum factor loading of. To examine the association between childhood invalidation both maternal and paternal and BPD symptoms, BPD symptoms were regressed onto paternal and maternal childhood invalidation separately, and thereafter simultaneously. To examine potential moderating effects of conformity and self-construal on the association between invalidation and BPD symptoms, a multiple regression was run using the PROCESS macro [ 50 ]. All variables were mean centered.
Wanting the Long for You: To practise the pay between light invalidation both financial and paternal and BPD starters, BPD platforms were regressed onto mad and available general invalidation short, and thereafter never.
Results Preliminary analysis Envirpnment components factor analysis with an orthogonal varimax rotation applied onto the AVS-R demonstrated an 8-component solution accounting for Invalidating home environment center Environnment for results of the factor analysis. Following exclusion of items with a factor loading of less than 0. Content analyses of the items indicate that the components correspond to: Items for the Conformity environmetn Norms factor were averaged into a subscale score, with higher Invalidatinh reflecting environmnet greater endorsement of conformity.
Further analyses were conducted with maternal invalidation retained in the Invvalidating. Given the significant 3-way cehter, we tested the conditional effects of maternal invalidation at different values of each of the moderators. As hypothesized, the results showed a positive association between BPD symptoms and parental invalidation, with maternal invalidation playing a larger role. Further, the results demonstrated that the association between maternal invalidation and BPD symptoms varied as a function of self-construal orientation and conformity.
Specifically, conformity moderated the association between invalidation and BPD symptoms for individuals with an interdependent self-construal. Among these individuals, those who endorsed high conformity showed a significant, positive association between maternal invalidation and BPD symptoms; whereas those who endorsed low conformity levels showed no relationship between maternal invalidation and BPD symptomatology. Among individuals with an independent self-construal, the relationship between maternal invalidation and BPD symptoms was not moderated by levels of conformity.
The finding that maternal invalidation is more strongly associated with BPD symptoms, compared to paternal invalidation, is consistent with previous studies that have examined the parent-specific effects of invalidation in BPD etiology [ 1112 ]. This finding may be attributed to the structure of traditional families, especially in Asian cultures, whereby mothers are more often the primary caregiver [ 10 ], and spend more time with their children [ 51 ]. Within this gender role context, children may respond more negatively to invalidation coming from mothers, who are expected to be warmer and more nurturing compared to fathers.
Taken together, the findings highlight the role of maternal invalidation as a potential risk factor involved in the development of emotion dysregulation and BPD symptoms.
The finding that the relationship between maternal invalidation and BPD symptoms varies as a function of self-construal and conformity provides among the first evidence for the role of culturally-relevant processes in the intersection between experiences of invalidation and BPD symptoms. Self-invalidation and invalidation by others make recovery from depression and anxiety particularly difficult. Some believe that invalidation is a major contributor to emotional disorders. Most people would deny that they invalidate the internal experience of others. Very few would purposefully invalidate someone else.
But well-intentioned people may be uncomfortable with intense emotions or believe that they are helping when they are actually invalidating. In terms of self-invalidation, many emotionally sensitive people would agree they invalidate themselves, but would argue that they deserve it.
They are uncomfortable with their own sensitivity. The truth is that validation is not self-acceptance, it is only an acknowledgement that an internal experience occurred. Verbal Invalidation There are many different reasons and ways that people who care about you invalidate you. Here are just a few. Sometimes people think that knowing just how someone else feels without having to ask means they are emotionally close to that person. Misunderstanding What it Means to Validate: